Prof. Dr. Wolfgang May
Date and Time: Wednesday 10-12 ct, Friday 10-12 ct.
Exercises (Übung): integrated into lecture (see announcements on this page)
Room: IFI 2.101 (North Campus)
If (and as long as) non-german-speaking participants attend, the course will be given in english.
3+1 SWS, 6 ECTS credits (Studies in Applied Informatics),
Knowledge in First-Order Logic as taught in "Formale Systeme" is sufficient.
Although, prospective participants are strongly recommended to have participated in
the lecture Database Theory.
XML: RDF/XML uses XML as representation, but requires only a little bit of
knowledge about XML. A short introduction to XML from that point of view will be given
in the lecture.
XML with DTD, XPath, XQuery, XSLT and XML Schema is the topic of the lecture
Semistructured Data and XML
(prospectively taking place again in Summer Term 2016).
Note: the module is by default credited as
"Core Informatics". It can also be credited as "Applied Informatics".
(Decision by the Dean of Studies on 25.10.2006/2.2.2010). In this case,
please prepare a personal plan of studies (that e.g. connects
it with your application area etc.) and ask for approval by the DoS.
- Short Review: Basic Notions of First-Order Logic
- RDF: N3 and RDF/XML format, semantics
- RDFS, OWL: having RDF data with additional reasoning
- Description Logics: the logic underlying OWL
- Practical experiments with RDF, Jena, Reasoners etc.
Dates & Topics
- First Meeting: 28.10. 10-12: Administrativa, Overview.
Slides: Introduction and Ontologies
- Reasoning Motivation: the Einstein/Fish Puzzle ...
will (again) be solved declaratively, but totally different than in DBT.
- Fri, 30.10. Introduction, Web architectures
- Wed, 4.11.: Web Architectures, Ontologies
- Fri, 6.11: Ontologies (Cont'd); review of first-order logic and basic notions of
Slides: Introduction to Logics
- 11.11. Logical Formalization of Ontologies.
A slide set on first-order logic (from the DB theory lecture) can be
- 13.11. Lecture: Ontologies (Cont'd, up to Slide 51)
- 18.11. Lecture: Ontologies, Reasoning (Cont'd)
A slide set on reasoning and the FOL tableau calculus (from the DB
theory lecture) can be found here.
- 20.11 Tableau Calculus
- 25.11./27.11. no lecture
- 2.12.: Reasoning (Conclusions), RDF
Slides: RDF [1-on-1,
Note: all example files are accessible in the RDF subdirectory of
this Web page [ Download RDF.zip] .
- 4.12.: RDF, SPARQL
Exercise Sheet 1 (SPARQL)
- 9.12: SPARQL
- 11.12. Discussion of Exercise 1.1 + Lecture
Solutions to Exercise Sheet 1
- 16.12: Discussion of Ex. 1.2 + Lecture (SPARQL Formal Semantics)
- 18.12:2015 Lecture: SPARQL Formal Semantics
Exercise Sheet 2 (SPARQL Formal Semantics)
(die eine Zeile auf der zweiten Seite nicht vergessen)
- 6.1.2016 Discussion of Exercise Sheet 2
Solutions to Exercise Sheet 2
- 8.1.2016 Discussion of Exercise Sheet 2
- 13.1. Lecture
- 15.1. Lecture
- 20.1.: RDFS
Slides: RDFS [1-on-1,
RDF/XML - shortly the main ideas. RDF/XML ist nothing conceptually new,
but (if one knows XML well) mainly craft, like using URIs, and element names
and namespaces, and xml:base.
Slides: RDF/XML [1-on-1,
Slides: DL [1-on-1,
- 27.1. Description Logics
- 29.1. OWL
Slides: OWL [1-on-1,
- 3.2. OWL
- 5.2. OWL
- 10.2. OWL 2.0
Slides: OWL 2.0 [1-on-1,
- 12.2. OWL
- ... finally, there is also the solution to the Fishpuzzle in OWL:
- fishpuzzleLong.n3 is a very detailed
and intuitive specifikation:
Part 1: Specification of a row of 5 houses.
Part 2: Specification of the properties.
Part 3: Specification of the constraints.
- fishpuzzleLong.sparql is the corresponding query
- fishpuzzleShort.n3 is a shorter encoding:
Part 1: Specification of a row of 5 houses as above.
Part 2: tricky encoding of the properties. Instead of assigning to each house a color, a person,
a brand of cigarettes, a drink, and a pet via explicit RDF edges,
they are declared to be sets that are identified/mapped to each other.
Teil 3: specification of the constraints. Simpler as before, since only the equivalence
classes have to be considered.
- fishpuzzleShort.sparql is the corresponding query.
- ... to be extended ...
- End of lectures: 12.2.2016
The SmartBoard Notes are collected here
(only relevant ones, so for some dates there are no notes).
The complete slide set can be found
do not print it yet (subject to change); the slides of the
SSD&XML lecture can also be found there. Knowledge of XML is only required
so far as RDF/XML is (in addition to the N3 format) a possible representation
of RDF data. One should be able to "understand" an XML document. XPath/XQuery and
XSLT are not required.
- Oral exams, several slots to choose between February 15 and April.
- Exam procedure: about 30-40 minutes. Candidates start
with talking about a topic of their choice from the lecture (5-10 minutes),
then questions+answers, including sketches on paper develops dynamically.
The 5-10 minutes talk at the beginning should give me as an examiner a good
impression of your knowledge, and a good starting point to assess your
knowledge with further questions (usually starting with the chosen topic, and then
also going to other topics from the lecture).
- There will be several slots to chose. Choose one of them.
Each slot has a fixed registration/deregistration end date.
- Exams between 15.2.-19.2.; registration/deregistration until 8.2.
- Exams between 29.2.-4.3.; registration/deregistration until 22.2.
- Exams between 4.4.-15.4.; registration/deregistration until 28.3. (summer term lectures starting on 11.4.)
- Contact me by mail for the individual exam appointment in the slot of your choice
at latest one week before end of registration.
P. Hitzler, M. Krötzsch, S. Rudolph, Y. Sure: "Semantic Web - Grundlagen" (in German).
Springer eXamen.press, 2008;
The (german language) book covers nearly exactly the contents of the lecture and also
contains an introduction to first-order logic in the appendix.
P. Hitzler, M. Krötzsch, S. Rudolph, Y. Sure: "Foundations of Semantic Web Technologies"
Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2009;
The (english language) book covers nearly exactly the contents of the lecture and also
contains an introduction to first-order logic in the appendix.
For the part on (first order) logic, and textbook on foundations of logic from the library
(e.g. "Logik für Informatiker" (in German) von Uwe Schöning) or the manuscript
"Formale Systeme" by
Peter H. Schmitt (Uni Karlsruhe) (Kap. 1-5) can be used.
If you experience any problems (forgotten chmod, wrong paths, forgotten updates etc.),
please notify us.
- Pellet Homepage
- Command line usage:
- Usage as Web Service (see Slides)
For use in the CIP Pool, a Pellet instance running on ap34 can be used at
- If you have an own Pellet on your own computer, start it with ./pellet-dig.sh.
Pellet usually runs at port 8081. The URL will then be http://localhost:8081.
Apache JENA (
is a free and open source Java framework for building Semantic Web and
Linked Data applications.
The course uses a lightweight housemade shell interface to Jena for querying:
- Download most recent version (incl. OWL2 and SPARQL 1.1) August 2015.
- in the CIP Pool located at
- IsaViz is used for visualization of RDF-Graphs, installed locally at:
- You can either change into that directory and start the program with the command
./run.sh or by using an alias pointing to that script. In the latter case
you will need to copy the configuration file
isaviz.cfg into your home directory.
- If you want to run the application on your own computer, you will have
to install graphviz as well, either from its
or from the appropriate package provided by your distribution
(e.g. debian-package graphviz).
The Mondial database in RDF format can be found at
jena -q -qf mondial-query.sparql
jena -pellet -q -qf mondial-meta-query.sparql
Usage in the CIP Pool
From the CIP Pool computers at the IFI (ground floor or log in from remote), the software and resources are directly
- log in from remote to login.stud.informatik.uni-goettingen.de (Linux: ssh, Windows: puTTY)
- log through to one of the individual computers (e.g. ssh c032)
- set the alias in your .bashrc file:
alias jena='java -jar /afs/informatik.uni-goettingen.de/course/semweb-lecture/JENA-API/semweb.jar'
- The lecture's RDF directory with the n3 files can be found at
- The Mondial files can be found at