Prof. Dr. Wolfgang May,
Lars Runge, M.Sc.,
Sebastian Schrage, M.Sc.
Date and Time: Tue 14-16, Wed 10-12
Room: IFI 2.101 (North Campus)
Exercises (Übung): integrated into lecture (see announcements on this page).
There will be non-mandatory exercise sheets whose solutions will be discussed as parts
of the lecture.
We try to use StudIP
(Participants list, messages to all participants).
All materials and announcements can be found HERE on the "blue DBIS pages"
If (and as long as) non-german-speaking participants attend, the course will be given in english.
Technical Data: 6 ECTS credits (Studies in Applied Informatics).
Note: the module is by default credited as
"Core Informatics". It can also be credited as "Applied Informatics".
(Decision by the Dean of Studies on 25.10.2006/2.2.2010). In this case,
please prepare a personal plan of studies (that e.g. connects
it with your application area etc.) and ask for approval by the DoS.
Knowledge in First-Order Logic as taught in "Formale Systeme" is sufficient.
Although, prospective participants are recommended to have participated in
the lecture Deductive Databases.
XML: RDF/XML uses XML as representation, but requires only a little bit of
knowledge about XML. A short introduction to XML from that point of view will be given
in the lecture.
XML with DTD, XPath, XQuery, XSLT and XML Schema is the topic of the lecture
Semistructured Data and XML
(prospectively taking place again in Summer Term 2020).
- Short Review: Basic Notions of First-Order Logic
- RDF: N3 and RDF/XML format, semantics
- SPARQL: the query language for RDF data
- Linked Open Data (LOD): Web of Data and distributed querying.
- The Mondial database is
used as an example for RDF data.
Mondial LOD entry point.
- RDFS, OWL: having RDF data with additional reasoning
- Description Logics: the logic underlying OWL
- Practical experiments with RDF, Jena, Reasoners etc.
- An experimental Web interface can be found for RDF+OWL and SPARQL here
Dates & Topics
- First Meeting: Tue 22.10. 14-16: Administrativa, Overview.
Slides: Introduction and Ontologies
- Reasoning Motivation: the Einstein/Fish Puzzle ...
will (again) be solved declaratively, but totally different than in the "Deductive
- Wed 23.10.: Web Architectures, Ontologies
- 29.10.: Ontologies (Cont'd)
- 30.10.: ... no lecture today. Nobody was there (too cold? - this will become even worse ...).
- 5.11. Review of first-order logic and basic notions of
model theory and reasoning.
Slides: Introduction to Logics.
- 6.11.: FOL and Reasoning.
A slide set on first-order logic (from the Deductive Databases lecture) can be
A slide set on reasoning and the FOL tableau calculus (from the DB
theory lecture) can be found here.
"Inofficial" Exercise Sheet 0 (Tableaux)
These (simple) exercises just review the FOL tableau calculus. Due to reasons of time,
they will not be discussed at length in the lecture. Here is the
- 12.11. Inference Systems
- 13.11. RDF
Note: all example files are accessible in the RDF subdirectory of
this Web page
[ Download RDF.zip ]
[ SPARQL Web Service interface ]
- There was nobody attending the lecture on Nov 19/20.
As long as this is the case, the proceeding as a "virtual lecture"
is as follows:
- I will put the topics (by sections and/or slide numbers)
for each lecture with some comments on the Web page (based on the
lectures of the last years).
- I will be there at the beginning of each lecture.
- If somebody else is there, I will give the lecture and/or
answer questions on the material (the current material, and also
previous and future stuff).
- 19./20.11. Topics: RDF, SPARQL
Exercise Sheet 1: SPARQL
- 26.11.: SPARQL - Formal Semantics, SPARQL 1.1,
Exercise Sheet 2: SPARQL Formal Semantics
- 27.11.: RDF: Blank Node, Tree vs. Graph Data Models & Logic
- 3.12.: RDFS
- 4.12.: Lecture: RDFS,
RDF/XML - shortly the main ideas. RDF/XML ist nothing conceptually new,
but (if one knows XML well) mainly craft, like using URIs, and
expansion of element names to URIs with namespaces, and xml:base.
- 10.12.: Linked Open Data
The experimental Mondial LOD Service can be found at
- 11.12.: Reification and Modeling/Wikidata
- 17.12.2019: Description Logics
- 18.12.2019 OWL
- 7.1./8.1.2020 OWL ...
- Solutions to Exercise Sheets 1 (SPARQL) [solution]
and 2 (SPARQL Formal Semantics) [solution]
- 15.1./16.1.2020 OWL ...
- 21.1.: OWL
Exercise Sheet 3 (OWL)
- 22.1.: OWL 2.0
Slides: OWL 2.0
- ... and now you can also try to solve the Einstein/Fish Puzzle.
- Announcement: Semantic Web Lab Course SS 2020
- Furthermore, in SS20, there is
the Lecture Semistructured Data and XML
SS2020 (Advanced BSc/MSc) about XML and related things,
and the Lecture
SS2020 (Advanced BSc/MSc) on Datalog and "intelligent"
relational databases under closed-world semantics.
- 28.1/29.1./5./6.2.2019: OWL 2.0
- Solutions to Exercise Sheet 3 (OWL) [solution]
- ... finally, there is also the solution to the Fishpuzzle in OWL.
There are two modelings. At the beginning (10 years ago, a very old version of pellet)
the short one took about 5 minutes, and the long one took 40 hours. Today, both run in
some seconds, which demonstrates mainly the progress in the reasoners' internal strategy:
- fishpuzzleLong.n3 is a very detailed
and intuitive specification:
Part 1: Specification of a row of 5 houses.
Part 2: Specification of the properties.
Part 3: Specification of the constraints.
- fishpuzzleLong.sparql is the corresponding query
- fishpuzzleShort.n3 is a shorter encoding:
Part 1: Specification of a row of 5 houses as above.
Part 2: tricky encoding of the properties. Instead of assigning to each house a color, a person,
a brand of cigarettes, a drink, and a pet via explicit RDF edges,
they are declared to be sets that are identified/mapped to each other.
Part 3: specification of the constraints. Simpler as before, since only the equivalence
classes have to be considered.
The reasoner then has just to compute the matching (actually, this task is very similar
to what StableModels does in the same situation based on clauses/disjunctions).
- fishpuzzleShort.sparql is the corresponding query.
- End of lectures: 7.2.2020
The SmartBoard Notes are collected here
(only relevant ones, so for some dates there are no notes).
The complete slide set can be found here
(including the Semantic Web Lab Course Slides). The slides of the
SSD&XML lecture can also be found there. Knowledge of XML is only
required so far as RDF/XML is (in addition to the N3 format) a
possible representation of RDF data. One should be able to
"understand" an XML document. XPath/XQuery and XSLT are not required.
- Exam procedure: about 30-40 minutes. Candidates start
with talking about a topic of their choice from the lecture (5-10 minutes),
then questions+answers, including sketches on paper develops dynamically.
The 5-10 minutes talk at the beginning should give me as an examiner a good
impression of your knowledge, and a good starting point to assess your
knowledge with further questions (usually starting with the chosen topic, and then
also going to other topics from the lecture).
- There are several slots to chose. Choose one of them.
Each slot has a fixed registration/deregistration end date.
(the main reason to have different slots is that registration and deregistration in
FlexNever is only possible up to one week before the first day of exams -
so having different slots makes it possible to decide later)
- Exams between Feb. 10-March 6 (first weeks after the lectures), registration/deregistration until Feb. 3
- Exams between March 9-April 24 (summer term lectures start on April 14, Easter weekend is April 9-13),
registration/deregistration until March 2
- Contact me by mail for the individual exam appointment in the slot of your choice ...
at latest with the end of registration.
P. Hitzler, M. Krötzsch, S. Rudolph, Y. Sure: "Semantic Web - Grundlagen" (in German).
Springer eXamen.press, 2008;
The (german language) book covers nearly exactly the contents of the lecture and also
contains an introduction to first-order logic in the appendix.
P. Hitzler, M. Krötzsch, S. Rudolph, Y. Sure: "Foundations of Semantic Web Technologies"
Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2009;
The (english language) book covers nearly exactly the contents of the lecture and also
contains an introduction to first-order logic in the appendix.
For the part on (first order) logic, and textbook on foundations of logic from the library
(e.g. "Logik für Informatiker" (in German) von Uwe Schöning) or the manuscript
"Formale Systeme" by
Peter H. Schmitt (Uni Karlsruhe) (Kap. 1-5) can be used.
If you experience any problems (forgotten chmod, wrong paths, forgotten updates etc.),
please notify us.
Apache JENA (
is a free and open source Java framework for building Semantic Web and
Linked Data applications.
The course uses a lightweight housemade shell interface to Jena for querying:
- Download most recent version
(incl. OWL2, partially SPARQL 1.1, based on Jena 2.10 and compatible Openllet) Nov. 2019.
- in the CIP Pool located at
- Experimental Web interface
- Openllet Homepage
(Open Source tool based on the last freely-available version of Pellet)
- Pellet itself has been turned into a commercial product at Stardog.
LOD: Accessing RDF Data in the Web
- rapper: a tool that accesses a Web page in RDF-reading mode to get RDF triples: e.g.
The Mondial database in RDF format can be found at
jena -q -qf mondial-query.sparql
jena -pellet -q -qf mondial-meta-query.sparql
Usage in the CIP Pool
From the CIP Pool computers at the IFI (ground floor or log in from remote), the software and resources are directly
- log in from remote to login.stud.informatik.uni-goettingen.de (Linux: ssh, Windows: puTTY)
- log through to one of the individual computers (e.g. ssh c032)
- set the alias in your .bashrc file:
alias jena='java -jar /afs/informatik.uni-goettingen.de/course/semweb-lecture/JENA-API/semweb.jar'
- The lecture's RDF directory with the n3 files can be found at
- The Mondial files can be found at