Institute for Informatics
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen

Databases and Information Systems

Uni Göttingen

The MONDIAL Database

**   F-Logic   **   SQL   **   XML   **   RDF/OWL   **   Datalog   **

The MONDIAL database has been compiled from geographical Web data sources listed below:

  • CIA World Factbook (mainly in 1998 and 2015),
  • "Global Statistics", a predecessor of "GeoHive" which has been collected by Johan van der Heyden, but went offline in 2016/2017 (regularly since 1998),
  • City population by Thomas Brinkhoff (since the 2015 update),
  • Wikipedia,
  • at the beginning, additional textual sources for coordinates,
  • the printed International Atlas by Kümmerly & Frey, Rand McNally, and Westermann,
  • and some geographical data of the 1987 TERRA database from the University of Karlsruhe's teaching.

The generation of the MONDIAL database in 1998 served as a case study for information extraction and integration (pre-XML):

  • The original data extraction and integration process using the F-Logic system FLORID is described here.
  • The integration in XML using the LoPiX system (2001) is described here.

A main revision of Mondial has been done in summer 2009 (Mondial-II, using XQuery for integrating data from XHTML sources into XML with XML as target format). The data and main schema (XML and SQL) have been incrementally changed:

  • added the political changes since 1998: Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, and Timor-Leste,
  • added several small island countries; some independent, some dependent. Added an attribute "dependent" to countries.
  • refined the modeling of geographical things (rivers, lakes, seas, islands, mountains, deserts), and extended the data:
    • sources and estuaries of rivers are now modeled,
    • added data on rivers flowing out of lakes,
    • cities located on islands, made cities located at waters more complete,
    • mountains located on islands,
    • islands located in (or on the border between) seas,
  • names of religions and languages are aligned (data still highly incomplete),
  • in 2009, we did not update population numbers, organization memberships, neither add many more cities.

Another main revision of Mondial has been done during 2015 (Mondial-III). The data and main schema (XML and SQL) have again been incrementally changed:

  • updates of population numbers of cities, provinces and countries, including such data of different years (adding new tables in the SQL schema),
  • updates of country data: GDP, inflation, (added unemployment rate) etc.,
  • updates of the memberships of countries in organizations.
  • The current version of Mondial-III is not yet stable (still to be extended).

The Mondial database is available in several formats:

Relational MONDIAL

The Database training "Praktikum: Datenbankprogrammierung in SQL/Oracle" at the IFI uses the relational version of the MONDIAL database:

  • Generating the Database under MySQL/MariaDB
  • The Oracle instance of Mondial can be queried by that form.

MONDIAL in Datalog

  • mondial.P to be used e.g. with XSB Prolog/Datalog from Stony Brook University
    (aside: the DLV system from TU Vienna only supports integer, no negative numbers or decimals).


The Mondial database provides a comprehensive example for XML, e.g., for use in teaching.

(note that some browsers to not *show* XML and DTD files correctly. Download the file(s) and load them into an editor)


Files are available in N3 format and in RDF/XML format. For human readers, the N3 is better readable, but as different tools have different expectations what "valid" N3 syntax is, there is also the RDF/XML variant [in the browser, use "show source"].

MONDIAL in F-Logic

The MONDIAL database has been stimulated by the TERRA database and the SQL training of the Institut für Programmstrukturen und Datenorganisation der Universität Karlsruhe. Using Florid, a new database has been generated in 1998 from the above data sources.
MONDIAL and the DBIS SQL materials are freely available for research and educational purposes under the condition that the origin of MONDIAL is mentioned in all publications and documentation.
Recommended citation is the technical report with a reference to the Web page:

  author =	 {Wolfgang May},
  title =	 {Information Extraction and Integration with \textsc{Florid}:
        The \textsc{Mondial} Case Study},
  institution =  {Universit\"at Freiburg, Institut f\"ur Informatik},
  year = 	 1999,
  number =	 131,
  note    =     "Available from

Mondial is used as an example in several books, lectures, courses etc. Search e.g. google for